How to add responsive email content into your responsive email design.
So, I found myself wearing a hat that I’ve haven’t had to wear in a long time. I was working on an email design project to produce a responsive template – responsive in both the layout and in displaying links on desktop and mobile devices.
One method for implementing responsive content would have been to use two wrapping parent blocks for every piece of content that needed to differ. For most use cases this should suffice, but for our use case, this would have been any piece of content with a link – that is, the entire mailing.
Attempting to avoid needless duplication of content, the solution I came to is to create two inline elements – using only the differing content – and toggling display between the elements using rules in a media query. The hardest part about executing this is client support.
This solution does have several deficiencies, due to browser inconsistencies. Gmail and Outlook.com force inline CSS styling and don’t respect media queries, which is required to toggle the links. Therefore, these clients will always target desktop – at least this example does, the styles could be written to target mobile by default instead too.
The initial, naive thought was that this should work:
Unfortunately, this is the beginning of the rabbit hole – this isn’t going to work. Major clients work, but Gmail and Outlook show both blocks, because they don’t respect embedded CSS. These rules will need to be replicated inline.
Gmail Android is particularly horrible, because it doesn’t respect rules to hide inline elements. Because it drops inline styling, the link wrappers need to be converted to block elements.
The elements also need more obscure styling to help hide the block, because Gmail drops many inline styling attributes, including display: none. Similarly, the media query needs high precedence rules to negate all these styles.
At this point, all major clients are showing only one set of blocks, but because we converted the inline elements into block elements, some clients are displaying broken lines.
Fixing these issues is what makes things really ugly. The block elements can’t simply set display: inline or Gmail will drop formatting on them again, showing them. Instead, display: inline-block can be used, but this will cause Outlook.com to show the blocks.
Knowing that all other desktop clients will at least hide the block, Gmail can be targeted with display: inline-block and some extra formatting and Outlook can be targeted with conditional comment blocks:
<<!-- -->!--[if !mso]><<!-- -->!-- -- -->Mobile content<<!-- -->!--<![endif]-->
Outlook.com doesn’t like version comparisons in the conditional expression, and the middle, seemingly superfluous comment block is required, as Outlook.com doesn’t work with Microsoft’s own standard conditional comment directives and will display a blank page – of course.
Two more loose ends that this doesn’t reach is the IE6-backed rendering of Outlook 2000 and 2003. These clients still treat the inline-block as a block, so this requires a true hack to fix the spacing issue. This hack, placed after the display: inline-block inline rule, will only run on IE6:
*display: inline !important;
Lastly, Yahoo finally speaks up and displays its own CSS inconsistencies: it displays whatever the hell it wants to. To address this, all rules inside media queries now also need to use attribute selectors, instead of class selectors. Yahoo doesn’t support attribute selectors, and will disregard these rules entirely.
At this point, the only issues are spacing issues, which can be resolved for the most part by reducing links to a single line, without unneeded spacing.
Below is a close-up of the link replacement code, expanded out for display only:
<span class="desktop"> <a href="/tracking/foobar">Desktop</a> </span> <!--[if !mso]><!-- -- --> <div class="mobile-link" style=" display: inline-block !important; *display: inline !important; max-height: 0px; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; font-size: 0px;"> <a href="/tracking/mobile-foobar">Mobile</a> </div> <!--<![endif]-->
Through this project, I learned a great deal. Besides learning how to apply these obscure rules to email styling, I also learned that Gmail is the worst – more difficult to deal with than even Microsoft’s Outlook line. I can’t say I learned that Microsoft is awfully inconsistent, but that notion was at least lamented. Inconsistencies between rendering engines used in Outlook vary wildly, Outlook.com and Outlook don’t support the same conditionals, and I’m not even sure Windows Mobile knew what it was doing.
The only thing that made this experience tolerable were the resources available for testing. Trying to design all of this without Litmus, or another email testing service, would have been an awful, awful experience. Another invaluable tool was Campaign Monitor’s CSS support documents and their blog posts directed at email design issues. These offered a lot of clues and direction towards troubleshooting issues I was noticing.